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waterWe often forget that the large consumption and pollution is reducing the amount of healthy and clean water. Water is a very important factor not only for our country but also of human existence, because the human body consists of 65 - 70% water. A lot of people do not distinguish thirst from hunger, and because of that water is even more important to ensure adequate hydration throughout the day. As the most important nutrient, also water is necessary essential for the normal functioning of any organism, for example, metabolic activity, energy production and building of tissue. Human also gets water through the food (vegetables and fruits). As a rule, an adult should drink from the 1-3L dependent on individuality (weight, height, health, physical activity).

According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition large number of children depending on age drinks less water than the recommended 40-85% for boys and 46-90% for girls.

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Nutrition in patients with acute kidney failure

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nutrition-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-failurePatient with acute kidney failure, are in hipercatabolism and have protein-energy malnutrition. Hipercatabolism may be due to underlying disease and its complications, dialysis and poor nutritional status. The very numerous studies have shown that restoration of nutritional substances and energy can improve the nutritional status and improve the treatment outcome of patients with acute renal failure.

Nutrition in patients with chronic kidney failure

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nutrition-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-failureIn chronic kidney patients is recommended diet with less protein such as meat, fish with sufficient and not too much milk, dairy products and eggs. Not recommended foods with lots of potassium primarily fruits and vegetables and potatoes as opposed to patients who secrete a lot of protein in urine, which must compensate for the loss of nutrition.

Nutrition of old persons with chronic kidney failure

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nutrition-of-old-persons-with-chronic-kidney-failureAging is causing disturbances in the absorption of nutrients. Because of self-abandonment and financial problems the old people are unable to care independently and because of that , that situation cause mental or physical disability. To prevent malnutrition during hemodialysis they must treated with 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight, with at least 6.3 g of essential amino acids. Calorie intake should be at least 30-35 kcal / kg for 24 hours. It is recommended to replace water soluble vitamins and vitamin D3 as recommended by they doctor. If properly implemented, despite the measures fail to avoid malnutrition, it should start treatment with intravenous nutritional preparations during dialysis.

Nutrition in diabetic on hemodialysis

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nutrition-in-diabetic-on-hemodialysisDiabetes is the most frequent cause of chronic renal failure in the world, leading to a range of disorders of intermediary metabolism. Dining with diabetes during the dialysis they must increased by 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of body weight due to the negative nitrogen balance caused by hemodialysis. The need for protein increases during catabolism is present in infections, diabetic acidosis and gastrointestinal bleeding. It is recommended that 50 to 60% of total energy intake of carbohydrates are rich in fiber. We should also take account of good glycemic control to avoid the increased fluid intake between dialysis. On the market there are finished dietary products that are made from ingredients with a little protein (especially flour, bread, pasta, biscuits).

Nutrition in diabetic on peritoneal dialysis

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nutrition-in-diabetic-on-peritoneal-dialysisSuch patients should be entered from 1.2 to 1.4 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to avoid the development of negative nitrogen balance. Part of your daily carbohydrate intake in patients on peritoneal dialysis is obtained by absorption of glucose from the peritoneal cavity, which varies depending on the concentration of glucose in solution and the frequency changes, and it is estimated that about 100 to 200 g per day. Adding insulin to peritoneal cavity allows the efficient use of absorbed glucose, which is the process of dialysis decreased peripheral resistance to insulin.

Nutrition in patients on peritoneal dialysis

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nutrition-in-patients-on-peritoneal-dialysisProtein-energy malnutrition in patients may result as a consequence, decreased appetite, loss of protein and essential amino acids (5-10 g protein, 2-4 g aminoacids and 4-6 g of albumin per day), metabolic acidosis, endocrine disorders in uremia and associated diseases. Therapeutic approach in patients on peritoneal dialysis is based to prevent anorexia, increased intake of food by mouth, or infusions of food, appetite stimulation, correction of metabolic acidosis and the use of peritoneal dialysis solution containing essential amino acids. The recommended daily intake of protein in patients on peritoneal dialysis was between 1.2 and 1.3 g / kg body weight.

Nutrition for children with chronic kidney failure

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nutrition-for-children-with-chronic-kidney-failureFor proper growth and development of a healthy baby should be around 100 kcal / kg body weight, while the five-year child should be 70 kcal / kg. Caloric needs are later reduced, so that in adolescents is about 40 kcal / kg. Healthy infants should be about 2.2 g / kg during the first 6 months, after which needs decrease to 1.6 g / kg. The same amount of protein should be given to children with moderate to moderately severe renal failure, while the preterminal stage should reduce the intake of 1.2 to 1.6 g / kg for prevention of azotemia. When treated with peritoneal dialysis, protein intake should be increased as 3-4 g / kg, often with the replacement of protein preparations. Protein preparations are necessary for infants and young children with nephrotic syndrome. Infants milk mainly gets sufficient amount of sodium. In the preterminal stages of chronic kidney failure should reduce the intake of phosphorus in the final stages of kidney failure can rarely be avoided use of trusses phosphorus. Potassium intake should be limited, and most children should be routinely some of the tier of potassium. Substitution of calcium is necessary to correct hypocalcemia and osteopenia. It is recommended that compensation water soluble vitamins, while the fat soluble vitamins are not refundable.

Nutrition after kidney transplantation

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nutrition-after-kidney-transplantationThis group of patients requires special attention in order to maintain as long a transplanted kidney function and avoid major complications related to previous uremia and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Nutrition should be individualized depending on condition and associated diseases of each patient.
Obesity is a major problem of transplant patients. More than 60% of patients within the first year after transplantation, received more than 10% of their weight. Although obesity is not a risk factor for developing early aftertransplatation complications, contributing to chronic heart grafts and mortality from cardiovascular disease. As in other patients with diabetes require a diet that will maintain optimal blood glucose. We also need to be compensated vitamin D3 to prevent bone loss, and also recommended replacement of other vitamins, depending on the general nutrition status. Of patients requiring reimbursement of certain electrolytes, particularly with the use of diuretics.

Generally for kidney patients

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generally-for-kidney-patientsFood that is recommended:
•    There is no specific prohibition.
Food that is not recommended:
•    Do not consume large amounts of protein (meat, fish, milk, dairy products and eggs)
•    Particularly high values in the croquettes, potato chips, dried peas and beans. Much potassium is in the bran, but in a tomato sauce.

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